<megginson/>

(linear aerodynamic coefficients)

These coefficients come from Appendix B of Jan Roskam, Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls, DARCorporation, 1995. They are based on Roskam's computer models rather than wind-tunnel tests or other real-word observations, and use stability axes.

Some values have been modified from Roskam's originals; see Notes for details.

Contents

1. Data
2. Glossary
3. Notes

1. Data

Aircraft State Reference Geometry Flight Condition Data Mass Data Steady State Coefficients Longitudinal Coefficients and Stability Derivatives Longitudinal Control and Hinge Moment Derivatives Lateral-Directional Stability Derivatives Lateral-Directional Control and Hinge Moment Derivatives
S cbar b h M U1 qbar CG alpha1 W Ixx Iyy Izz Ixz CL1 CD1 CTX1 Cm1 CMT1 CDo CDu CDalpha CTXu CLo CLu CLalpha CLadot CLq Cmo Cmu Cmalpha Cmadot Cmq CmTu CmTalpha CDDe CLDe CmDe CDih Clih Cmih Chalpha ChDe Clbeta Clp Clr CYbeta CYp CYr Cnbeta CnTbeta Cnp Cnr ClDa ClDr CYDa CYDr CnDa CnDr Chalphaa ChDa Chbetar ChDr
Cessna 182 Climb 174 4.90 36.0 0 0.120 133.5 21.2 0.264 5.4 2650 948 1346 1967 0 0.719 0.0570 0.0570 0 0 0.0270 0.000 0.380 -0.1710 0.307 0.000 4.410 1.70 3.90 0.040 0 -0.650 -5.57 -15.20 0 0 0 0.43 -1.369 -0.54500 -0.594 -0.0895 -0.487 0.1869 -0.404 -0.1450 0.267 0.0907 0 -0.0649 -0.1199 0.2290 0.0147 0.0000 0.187 -0.0504 -0.0805 -0.369 0.0819 -0.579
Cruise 174 4.90 36.0 5000 0.201 220.1 49.6 0.264 0.0 2650 948 1346 1967 0 0.307 0.0320 0.0320 0 0 0.0270 0.000 0.121 -0.0960 0.307 0.000 4.410 1.70 3.90 0.040 0 -0.613 -7.27 -12.40 0 0 0 0.43 -1.122 -0.05840 -0.585 -0.0923 -0.484 0.0798 -0.393 -0.0750 0.214 0.0587 0 -0.0278 -0.0937 0.2290 0.0147 0.0000 0.187 -0.0216 -0.0645 -0.363 0.0819 -0.567
Approach 174 4.90 36.0 0 0.096 107.1 13.6 0.264 4.0 2650 948 1346 1967 0 1.120 0.1320 0.1320 0 0 0.0605 0.000 0.547 -0.3960 0.807 0.000 4.410 1.70 3.90 0.090 0 -0.611 -5.40 -11.40 0 0 0 0.43 -1.029 -0.05490 -0.594 -0.0969 -0.494 0.2039 -0.303 -0.2130 0.201 0.0701 0 -0.0960 -0.1151 0.2290 0.0147 0.0000 0.187 -0.0786 -0.0604 -0.369 0.0819 -0.579
Cessna 310 Climb 175 4.79 36.9 0 0.160 179.0 38.1 0.330 5.0 4600 8884 1939 11001 0 0.690 0.0540 0.0540 0 0 0.0290 0.000 0.362 -0.1620 0.288 0.000 4.580 4.50 8.80 0.070 0 -0.339 -14.80 -29.20 0 0 0 0.90 -2.530 -0.08260 -0.742 -0.0923 -0.552 0.1746 -0.610 -0.2093 0.356 0.1552 0 -0.0615 -0.1561 0.1720 0.0192 0.0000 0.230 -0.0402 -0.1152 -0.481 0.0722 -0.602
Cruise 175 4.79 36.9 8000 0.288 312.5 91.2 0.330 0.0 4600 8884 1939 11001 0 0.288 0.0310 0.0310 0 0 0.0290 0.000 0.160 -0.0930 0.288 0.000 4.580 5.30 9.70 0.070 0 -0.137 -12.70 -26.30 0 0 0 0.81 -2.260 -0.08630 -0.742 -0.1096 -0.551 0.0729 -0.698 -0.1410 0.355 0.1444 0 -0.0257 -0.1495 0.1720 0.0192 0.0000 0.230 -0.0168 -0.1152 -0.453 0.0722 -0.602
Approach 175 4.79 36.9 0 0.124 137.9 22.6 0.330 6.6 4600 8884 1939 11001 0 1.163 0.0171 0.0171 0 0 0.0974 0.000 0.650 -0.5130 0.640 0.000 4.580 4.10 8.40 0.100 0 -0.619 -11.40 -25.10 0 0 0 0.77 -2.160 -0.09250 -0.742 -0.0965 -0.566 0.2433 -0.577 -0.2897 0.355 0.1683 0 -0.1021 -0.1947 0.1720 0.0192 0.0000 0.230 -0.0676 -0.1152 -0.481 0.0722 -0.602
SIAI-Marchetti S-211 Approach 136 5.40 26.3 0 0.111 124.0 18.2 0.250 8.0 3500 750 4600 5000 200 1.414 0.2100 0.2100 0 0 0.0900 0.000 1.140 -0.4500 0.650 0.071 5.000 3.00 9.00 -0.070 0 -0.600 -7.00 -15.70 0 0 0 0.39 -0.900 0.00 1.00 -2.300 -0.22000 -0.504 -0.1400 -0.350 0.5600 -0.940 -0.0100 0.590 0.1600 0 -0.0300 -0.3100 0.1100 0.0300 0.0000 0.260 -0.0300 -0.1100 -0.143 -0.500 0.2500 -0.380
Cruise 1 136 5.40 26.3 25000 0.600 610.0 198.0 0.250 0.0 4000 800 4800 5200 200 0.149 0.0220 0.0220 0 0 0.0205 0.050 0.120 -0.0500 0.149 0.084 5.500 4.20 10.00 -0.080 0 -0.240 -9.60 -19.70 0 0 0 0.38 -0.880 0.00 0.99 -2.300 -0.22000 -0.504 -0.1100 -0.390 0.2800 -1.000 -0.1400 0.610 0.1700 0 0.0900 -0.2600 0.1000 0.0500 0.0000 0.028 -0.0030 -0.1200 -0.143 -0.500 0.2500 -0.380
Cruise 2 136 5.40 26.3 35000 0.600 584.0 125.7 0.250 0.9 4000 800 4800 5200 200 0.234 0.0250 0.0250 0 0 0.0205 0.050 0.170 -0.0550 0.149 0.132 5.500 4.20 10.00 -0.080 0 -0.240 -9.60 -19.70 0 0 0 0.35 -0.820 0.00 0.99 -2.300 -0.22000 -0.504 -0.1100 -0.390 0.3100 -1.000 -0.1200 0.620 0.1700 0 0.0800 -0.2600 0.1000 0.0500 0.0000 0.028 -0.0050 -0.1200 -0.143 -0.500 0.2500 -0.380
Cessna T-37A Climb 182 5.47 33.8 0 0.313 349.0 144.9 0.270 0.7 6360 7985 3326 11183 0 0.241 0.0220 0.0220 0 0 0.0200 0.000 0.130 -0.0500 0.190 0.000 4.810 1.80 3.70 0.025 0 -0.668 -6.64 -14.30 0 0 0 0.40 -1.070 -0.00784 -0.347 -0.0851 -0.440 0.0590 -0.361 -0.0635 0.314 0.1052 0 -0.0154 -0.1433 0.1788 0.0150 0.0000 0.200 -0.0160 -0.0365 -0.226 0.1146 -0.372
Cruise 182 5.47 33.8 30000 0.459 456.0 92.7 0.270 2.0 6360 7985 3326 11183 0 0.378 0.0300 0.0300 0 0 0.0200 0.000 0.250 -0.0700 0.200 0.000 5.150 2.00 4.10 0.025 0 -0.700 -6.95 -14.90 0 0 0 0.50 -1.120 -0.00775 -0.497 -0.0944 -0.442 0.0926 -0.346 -0.0827 0.300 0.1106 0 -0.0243 -0.1390 0.1810 0.0150 0.0000 0.200 -0.0254 -0.0365 -0.226 0.1146 -0.372
Approach 182 5.47 33.8 0 0.143 160.0 30.4 0.270 4.2 6360 7985 3326 11183 0 1.150 0.1580 0.1580 0 0 0.0689 0.000 0.682 -0.4000 0.810 0.000 4.640 1.80 3.70 0.100 0 -0.631 -6.84 -14.00 0 0 0 0.40 -1.050 -0.00739 -0.347 -0.0822 -0.458 0.2540 -0.303 -0.1908 0.263 0.1095 0 -0.0768 -0.1613 0.1788 0.0150 0.0000 0.200 -0.0760 -0.0365 -0.226 0.1146 -0.372
Beech 99 Approach 280 6.50 46.0 0 0.152 170.0 34.2 0.160 3.5 11000 15189 20250 34141 4371 1.150 0.1620 0.1620 0 0 0.0969 0.000 0.933 -0.3240 0.760 0.027 6.240 2.70 8.10 0.100 0 -2.080 -9.10 -34.00 0 0 0 0.58 -1.900 0.00 1.30 -3.900 -0.1300 -0.500 0.0600 -0.590 -0.2100 0.390 0.1200 0 -0.0050 -0.2040 0.1560 0.0087 0.0000 0.144 -0.0012 -0.0763
Cruise (low) 280 6.50 46.0 5000 0.310 340.0 118.3 0.160 0.0 7000 10085 15148 23046 1600 0.211 0.0298 0.0298 0 0 0.0270 0.000 0.131 -0.0596 0.201 0.020 5.480 2.50 8.10 0.050 0 -1.890 -9.10 -34.00 0 0 0 0.60 -2.000 0.00 1.35 -4.100 -0.1300 -0.500 0.1400 -0.590 -0.1900 0.390 0.0800 0 0.0190 -0.1970 0.1560 0.0109 0.0000 0.148 -0.0012 -0.0772
Cruise (high) 280 6.50 46.0 20000 0.434 450.0 128.2 0.160 1.1 11000 15189 20250 34141 4371 0.306 0.0298 0.0298 0 0 0.0270 0.000 0.131 -0.0596 0.201 0.020 5.480 2.50 8.10 0.050 0 -1.890 -9.10 -34.00 0 0 0 0.60 -2.000 0.00 1.35 -4.100 -0.1300 -0.500 0.1400 -0.590 -0.1900 0.390 0.0800 0 0.0190 -0.1970 0.1560 0.0106 0.0000 0.144 -0.0012 -0.0758
Cessna 620 Climb 340 6.58 55.1 0 0.181 202.4 48.7 0.250 5.0 15000 64811 17300 64543 0 0.903 0.0750 0.0750 0 0 0.0408 0.000 0.527 -0.2550 0.430 0.000 5.380 3.30 8.00 0.060 0 -1.060 -10.30 -24.70 0 0 0 0.63 -1.900 0.00000 -0.178 -0.1080 -0.570 0.2176 -0.886 -0.3150 0.448 0.1848 0 -0.0924 -0.2080 0.1776 0.0200 0.0000 0.200 -0.0367 -0.1054 -0.462 0.0602 -0.588
Cruise 340 6.58 55.1 18000 0.351 366.8 91.1 0.250 0.0 15000 64811 17300 64543 0 0.484 0.0420 0.0420 0 0 0.0322 0.000 0.269 -0.1260 0.480 0.000 5.550 2.70 7.50 0.060 0 -1.180 -8.17 -22.40 0 0 0 0.58 -1.730 0.00000 -0.212 -0.1381 -0.566 0.1166 -0.883 -0.2270 0.448 0.1739 0 -0.0501 -0.2000 0.1776 0.0200 0.0000 0.200 -0.0194 -0.1054 -0.376 0.0602 -0.537
Approach 340 6.58 55.1 0 0.170 189.2 42.6 0.250 6.0 15000 64811 17300 64543 0 1.038 0.1140 0.1140 0 0 0.0628 0.000 0.475 -0.3420 0.480 0.000 5.380 2.70 7.60 0.090 0 -1.000 -8.68 -22.80 0 0 0 0.59 -1.750 0.00000 -0.212 -0.1172 -0.576 0.2307 -0.907 -0.3430 0.447 0.1871 0 -0.1026 -0.2240 0.1776 0.0200 0.0000 0.200 -0.0417 -0.1054 -0.462 0.0602 -0.588
Learjet 24 Approach 230 7.00 34.0 0 0.152 170.0 34.3 0.320 5.0 13000 28000 18800 47000 1300 1.640 0.2560 0.2560 0 0 0.0431 0.000 1.060 -0.6000 1.200 0.040 5.040 1.60 4.10 0.047 -0.01 -0.660 -5.00 -13.50 0.006 0 0 0.40 -0.980 0.00 0.85 -2.100 -0.10500 -0.378 -0.1730 -0.390 0.4500 -0.730 0.0000 0.400 0.1500 0 -0.1300 -0.2600 0.1490 0.0140 0.0000 0.140 -0.0500 -0.0740
Cruise (max wht) 230 7.00 34.0 40000 0.700 677.0 134.6 0.320 2.7 13000 28000 18800 47000 1300 0.410 0.0335 0.0335 0 0 0.0216 0.104 0.300 -0.0700 0.130 0.400 5.840 2.20 4.70 0.050 0.05 -0.640 -6.70 -15.50 0 0 0 0.46 -1.240 0.00 0.94 -2.500 -0.13200 -0.476 -0.1100 -0.450 0.1600 -0.730 0.0000 0.400 0.1270 0 -0.0080 -0.2000 0.1780 0.0190 0.0000 0.140 -0.0200 -0.0740
Cruise (low wht) 230 7.00 34.0 40000 0.700 677.0 134.6 0.320 1.5 9000 6000 17800 25000 1400 0.280 0.0279 0.0279 0 0 0.0216 0.104 0.220 -0.0700 0.130 0.280 5.840 2.20 4.70 0.050 0.07 -0.640 -6.70 -15.50 0 0 0 0.46 -1.240 0.00 0.94 -2.500 -0.13200 -0.476 -0.1000 -0.450 0.1400 -0.730 0.0000 0.400 0.1240 0 -0.0220 -0.2000 0.1780 0.0210 0.0000 0.140 -0.0200 -0.0740
Lockheed F-104 Approach 196 9.60 21.9 0 0.257 287.0 97.8 0.070 10.0 16300 3600 59000 60000 0 0.850 0.2634 0.2634 0 0 0.1189 0.000 0.455 -0.5000 0.240 0.000 3.440 0.66 2.30 0.030 0 -0.644 -1.64 -5.84 0 0 0.00 0.68 -1.600 -0.1750 -0.285 0.2650 -1.180 0.0000 0.000 0.5070 0 -0.1440 -0.7530 0.0392 0.0448 0.0000 0.329 0.0042 -0.1645
Cruise 196 9.60 21.9 55000 1.800 1742.0 434.5 0.070 2.0 16300 3600 59000 60000 0 0.191 0.0553 0.0553 0 0 0.0480 -0.060 0.384 -0.1300 0.122 -0.200 2.005 0.82 1.90 -0.028 0 -1.308 -2.05 -4.83 0 0 0.00 0.52 -1.410 -0.0930 -0.272 0.1540 -1.045 0.0000 0.000 0.2420 0 -0.0930 -0.6490 0.0173 0.0079 0.0000 0.087 0.0025 -0.0435
McDonnell F-4 Approach 530 16.00 38.7 0 0.206 230.0 62.9 0.290 11.7 33200 23700 117500 133700 1600 1.000 0.2000 0.2000 0 0 0.0269 0.000 0.555 -0.4500 0.430 0.000 2.800 0.63 1.33 0.020 0 -0.098 -0.95 -2.00 0 0 -0.14 0.24 -0.322 -0.1560 -0.272 0.2050 -0.655 0.0000 0.000 0.1990 0 0.0130 -0.3200 0.0570 0.0009 -0.0355 0.124 0.0041 -0.0720
Cruise (M<1) 530 16.00 38.7 35000 0.900 876.0 283.2 0.290 2.6 39000 25000 122200 139800 2200 0.260 0.0300 0.0300 0 0 0.0205 0.027 0.300 -0.0640 0.100 0.270 3.750 0.86 1.80 0.025 -0.12 -0.400 -1.30 -2.70 0 0 -0.10 0.40 -0.580 -0.0800 -0.240 0.0700 -0.680 0.0000 0.000 0.1250 0 -0.0360 -0.2700 0.0420 0.0060 -0.0160 0.095 -0.0010 -0.0660
Cruise (M>1) 530 16.00 38.7 55000 1.800 1742.0 434.5 0.290 3.3 39000 25000 122200 139800 2200 0.170 0.0480 0.0480 0 0 0.0439 -0.054 0.400 -0.1000 0.010 -0.180 2.800 0.17 1.30 -0.025 0.054 -0.780 -0.25 -2.00 0 0 -0.15 0.25 -0.380 -0.0250 -0.200 0.0400 -0.700 0.0000 0.000 0.0900 0 0.0000 -0.2600 0.0150 0.0030 -0.0100 0.050 -0.0009 -0.0250
Boeing 747-200 Approach 5500 27.30 196.0 0 0.198 221.0 58.0 0.250 8.5 564000 13700000 30500000 43100000 830000 1.760 0.2630 0.2630 0 0 0.0751 0.000 1.130 -0.5523 0.920 -0.220 5.670 6.70 5.65 0.000 0.071 -1.450 -3.30 -21.40 0 0 0 0.36 -1.400 0.00 0.75 -3.000 -0.2810 -0.502 0.1950 -1.080 0.0000 0.000 0.1840 0 -0.2220 -0.3600 0.0530 0.0000 0.0000 0.179 0.0083 -0.1130
Cruise (low) 5500 27.30 196.0 20000 0.650 673.0 287.2 0.250 2.5 636636 18200000 33100000 49700000 970000 0.400 0.0250 0.0250 0 0 0.0164 0.000 0.200 -0.0550 0.210 0.130 4.400 7.00 6.60 0.000 0.013 -1.000 -4.00 -20.50 0 0 0 0.32 -1.300 0.00 0.70 -2.700 -0.1600 -0.340 0.1300 -0.900 0.0000 0.000 0.1600 0 -0.0260 -0.2800 0.0130 0.0080 0.0000 0.120 0.0018 -0.1000
Cruise (high) 5500 27.30 196.0 40000 0.900 871.0 222.8 0.250 2.4 636636 18200000 33100000 49700000 970000 0.520 0.0450 0.0450 0 0 0.0305 0.220 0.500 -0.9500 0.290 -0.230 5.500 8.00 7.80 0.000 -0.09 -1.600 -9.00 -25.50 0 0 0 0.30 -1.200 0.00 0.65 -2.500 -0.0950 -0.320 0.2000 -0.900 0.0000 0.000 0.2100 0 0.0200 -0.3300 0.0140 0.0050 0.0000 0.060 -0.0028 -0.0950

2. Glossary

Property Unit Description
S ft2 wing surface area
cbar ft mean average chord
b ft wingspan
h ft altitude
M mach number
U1 fps velocity
qbar lb/ft2 dynamic pressure
CG %cbar center of gravity
alpha1 deg angle of attack
W lb/ft2 weight
Ixx slugft2 moment of inertia about x
Iyy slugft2 moment of inertia about y
Izz slugft2 moment of inertia about z
Ixz slugft2 product of inertia about xz
CL1 dimensionless total lift
CD1 dimensionless total drag
CTX1 dimensionless total x-axis thrust
Cm1 dimensionless total pitching moment
CmT1 dimensionless total pitching moment due to thrust
CDo dimensionless drag at zero alpha
CDu dimensionless drag variation due to speed
CDa dimensionless drag variation due to alpha
CTXu dimensionless x-axis thrust variation due to speed
CLo dimensionless lift at zero alpha
CLu dimensionless lift variation due to speed
CLalpha dimensionless lift variation due to alpha
CLadot dimensionless lift variation due to alpha rate
CLq dimensionless lift variation due to pitch rate
Cmo dimensionless pitching moment at zero alpha
Cmu dimensionless pitching moment variation due to speed
Cmalpha dimensionless pitching moment variation due to alpha
Cmadot dimensionless pitching moment variation due to alpha rate
Cmq dimensionless pitching moment variation due to pitch rate
CmTu dimensionless pitching moment variation due to thrust with speed
CmTalpha dimensionless pitching moment variation due to thrust with alpha
CDDe dimensionless drag variation due to elevator deflection
CLDe dimensionless lift variation due to elevator deflection
CmDe dimensionless pitching moment variation due to elevator deflection
CDih dimensionless drag variation due to stabilizer incidence angle
CLih dimensionless lift variation due to stabilizer incidence angle
Cmih dimensionless pitching moment variation due to stabilizer incidence angle
Chalpha dimensionless hinge moment variation due to alpha
ChDe dimensionless hinge moment variation due to elevator deflection
Clbeta dimensionless rolling moment variation due to beta
Clp dimensionless rolling moment variation due to roll rate
Clr dimensionless rolling moment variation due to yaw rate
CYbeta dimensionless sideforce variation due to beta
CYp dimensionless sideforce variation due to roll rate
CYr dimensionless sideforce variation due to yaw rate
Cnbeta dimensionless yawing moment due to beta
CnTbeta dimensionless yawing moment due to thrust with beta
Cnp dimensionless yawing moment due to roll rate
Cnr dimensionless yawing moment due to yaw rate
ClDa dimensionless rolling moment due to aileron deflection
ClDr dimensionless rolling moment due to rudder deflection
CYDa dimensionless sideforce due to aileron deflection
CYDr dimensionless sideforce due to rudder deflection
CnDa dimensionless yawing moment due to aileron deflection
CnDr dimensionless yawing moment due to rudder deflection
Chalphaa dimensionless hinge moment variation due to aileron alpha
ChDa dimensionless hinge moment variation due to elevator deflection
Chbetar dimensionless hinge moment variation due to rudder beta
ChDr dimensionless hinge moment variation due to rudder deflection

3. Notes

Aircraft State Property Note
Cessna 182 Climb CG Changed to decimal 0.264 from percentage 26.4 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna 182 Cruise CG Changed to decimal 0.264 from percentage 26.4 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna 182 Approach CG Changed to decimal 0.264 from percentage 26.4 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna 182 Approach Clbeta Corrected from -0.969 to -0.0969.
Cessna 310 Climb CG Changed to decimal 0.33 from percentage 33 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna 310 Cruise CG Changed to decimal 0.33 from percentage 33 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna 310 Approach CG Changed to decimal 0.33 from percentage 33 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna T-37A Climb CG Changed to decimal 0.27 from percentage 27 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna T-37A Cruise CG Changed to decimal 0.27 from percentage 27 for consistency with other aircraft.
Cessna T-37A Approach CG Changed to decimal 0.27 from percentage 27 for consistency with other aircraft.

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